土壤保護行動 To Protect Our Soil Resources

idea-soil-resources-protection

土壤流失恢復不易 恐威脅未來世代

各國土壤專家在聯合國糧農組織(FAO)7 月25日舉辦的全球土壤研討會議上提出警告,表示因侵蝕、酸化、都市化、養分耗盡和化學汙染等因素,全球已有1/3的土壤因而劣化。為因應此危機,與會各國政府通過全球的行動計劃,透過強力的管制和投資保衛土壤資源。

土壤流失恢復不易 恐威脅未來世代

政府官員和專家齊聚羅馬參與為期3天的「全球土壤合作網」(Global Soil Partnership,GSP)會議,各界利害關係者在會議上均表達亟需政府保護土壤的訴求。

「土壤是糧食、飼料、燃料和纖維生產的基礎。沒有了土壤,地球無法供養生命。而土壤一旦流失,就無法在人類的生命周期之內恢復。」會議主持人,FAO副總幹事Maria Helena Semedo說,「目前的土壤劣化速度和程度已經威脅到未來世代的需求。」

此刻,全球土壤合作網急需資金和政治力量支持。FAO呼籲各國政府立刻採取行動,改善全球有限土壤資源的健康狀態,以確保未來世代能有足夠的糧食、水和能量。

生命倚賴土壤 照顧好還可減緩氣候變遷

全球人口預計將在2050年超越90億,糧食、飼料和纖維需求將成長60%;光是土壤就佔了全球生物多樣性的4分之1,土壤也是供應乾淨水源、抵禦洪水和乾旱不可或缺的角色,所有的動植物都依靠土壤的營養循環維繫生命。

此外,不僅石化燃料燃燒會威脅地球氣候,土壤的非永續管理也會讓氣候承受更大壓力。

非永續的土壤管理可能讓碳釋放到大氣中,加劇全球暖化。FAO指出,「只要歐洲地區的土壤釋放出0.1%的碳,即等同於每年1億輛車的全年排放量。」與會代表在會議上也認識到,地下1公尺深的低活性粘土,是全世界濕潤和半濕潤熱帶地區的主要土壤,有機碳含量是整個亞馬遜地區植披儲存碳量的兩倍。

FAO官員表示,土壤受到保護,氣候也會隨之得利。土壤的永續管理,透過碳匯和減少溫室氣體排放等方式,能對氣候產生正面效應。

2015年為國際土壤年 聯合國盼引關注

因此,FAO官員強調保護和管理富含有機碳的土壤的急迫性,包括泥炭地和永凍土區。

FAO官員也指出,目前已有相關計畫正在進行。一個全球土壤資訊系統正在規劃中,未來將用以測量土壤資源的狀態和改善情況。此外,為了提升永續土壤管理的公共意識,一項特殊的能力發展計畫也在進行中。

全球土壤相關團體已決定發展全球性的土壤永續管理、保育和重建的推廣計畫,以技術和具永續性、包容性的政策為基礎,以地方社群參與的方式來保護土壤。

2013年12月,聯合國大會宣布每年12月5日為世界土壤日。此外,聯合國已指定2015年為國際土壤年,讓土壤議題獲得更多關注。專家也將倡議讓土壤議題進入聯合國永續發展目標。

資料來源: ENS / 台灣環境資訊中心 via Go.Asia 

圖片: 台灣環境資訊中心

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A third of the world’s soils are degraded by erosion, nutrient depletion, acidification, urbanization, and chemical pollution, soil experts at a global conference warned today. There, governments approved a global plan of action to safeguard soil resources through strong regulation and investment.

“Soil is the basis for food, feed, fuel and fibre production. Without soils we cannot sustain life on Earth, and where soil is lost it cannot be renewed on a human timeline,” said Maria Helena Semedo, deputy director-general of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, which is hosting the conference.

“The current escalating rate of soil degradation threatens the capacity of future generations to meet their needs,” she warned.

The Food and Agriculture Organization is calling for urgent action to improve the health of the world’s limited soil resources to ensure that future generations have enough food, water and energy.

Government officials and experts are in Rome for a three-day meeting of the Global Soil Partnership, which brings together a broad range of stakeholders stressing the need for governments to preserve soil.

Now what is needed is funding and political support for the plan of action endorsed by the Global Soil Partnership.

The growing global population is expected to exceed nine billion by 2050, resulting in a 60 percent increase in the demand for food, feed and fiber.

Soil represents at least a quarter of global biodiversity, and plays a key role in the supply of clean water and resilience to floods and drought. All plant and animal life depends on primary nutrient recycling through soil processes.

Already stressed by the burning of fossil fuels, Earth’s climate could suffer more stress if soils are not sustainably managed.

Through unsustainable soil management practices, this carbon could be released to the atmosphere, aggravating global warming. “A release of just 0.1 percent of the carbon now contained in Europe’s soils would be equal to the annual emissions from 100 million cars,” the FAO said. Delegates at the conference learned that the first meter’s depth of low activity clay soils, which form the majority of upland soils in the world’s humid and sub-humid tropics, contains an amount of organic carbon double that stored in vegetation across the entire Amazon region.

When soils are protected, the climate also benefits, FAO officials said. The sustainable management of soil will have positive impact on climate change through carbon sequestration and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

In particular, they stressed the need to prioritize safeguarding and management of organic carbon rich soils such as peatlands and permafrost areas.

Progress is in the works, according to FAO officials.

A global soil information system is planned to measure progress made and the status of soil resources. To meet the need for public awareness of sustainable soil management, a special program for capacity development is underway.

The global soil community has decided to establish global programs for the promotion of sustainable soil management, soil conservation and soil restoration. Interventions will be based on technologies and sustainable and inclusive policies that directly involve local communities in actions to protect their soils.

In December 2013, the UN General Assembly declared the 5th of December to be the World Soil Day each year.

Even more attention will be paid to soils next year as the UN has designated 2015 as the International Year of Soils. Experts will advocate for the inclusion of soils in the Sustainable Development Goals.

Source: ENS / Taiwan Environmental Information Center via Go.Asia

Image: Taiwan Environment Information Center

 

我們的糧食和農業 Our food and agriculture in numbers

聯合國糧食及農業組織從1961年至今編纂和傳播來自近245個國家、35個區域的糧食及農業統計數據。農業統計數據提供政策和決定的基礎,其涉及從在哪兒投資、增長什麽到某一人口是否有足夠的食物吃等方面的數據。本信息圖解僅顯示所有收集數字的一部分。欲獲更多資料,請瀏覽糧農組織統計數據庫

FAO collates and disseminates food and agriculture statistics from approximately 245 countries and 35 regions from 1961 to the present. Agricultural statistics form the basis of policy and decisions, from where to invest and what to grow, to whether the population has enough food to eat. This infographic shows only a fraction of all the numbers collected, for more data visit FAOSTAT.

FAO-Infographic-food-ag-zh 1_FAO-Infographic-food-ag-ensource: FAO

2013國際藜麥年 International Year of Quinoa

Quinoa

國際藜麥年啟動:聯合國慶祝安第斯的「超級食物」 

LAUNCH OF THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF QUINOA: UN celebrates Andean “super food”

國際藜麥年啟動:聯合國慶祝安第斯的「超級食物」

「藜麥 (Quinoa) 在消除饑餓、營養不良和貧困中發揮重要作用!」聯合國糧食及農業組織 (FAO) 總幹事若澤•格拉濟阿諾•達席爾瓦 (José Graziano da Silva) 在紐約聯合國總部國際藜麥年啟動儀式上說。

聯合國秘書長潘基文 (Ban Ki-moon)、玻利維亞總統和秘魯第一夫人等出席了啟動禮當天的一系列活動,慶祝這種營養價值高、富含蛋白質和微量營養素,像穀物一樣的安第斯「超級食物」。

「今天我們招攬了一位新盟友加入我們對抗饑餓和糧食不安全的鬥爭,它就是藜麥!」格拉濟阿諾•達席爾瓦在談到這一作物獨特的營養特性和適應性時說。

藜麥是含有全部氨基酸、微量元素和維生素的唯一一種糧食作物,並且可以適應不同的生態環境和氣候。它耐旱、耐貧瘠和高鹽鹼土壤,可以種植在從海平面到海拔4000米的範圍,能夠承受 -8℃至38℃的溫度。

當世界面臨挑戰,在不斷變化的氣候條件下生產更多優質食物來養活越來越多的人口之際,藜麥為那些受糧食不安全影響的國家提供了另一個食物來源。

總幹事指出,這種作物在肯雅和馬里已經顯示出高產特性,而且糧農組織的初步研究表明,也可以在喜馬拉雅山區、印度北部平原、非洲薩赫勒地區、也門和世界其他乾旱地區發展藜麥生產。

來自安第斯的禮物

「這種非凡的穀物已經成為數千年來千百萬安第斯人的一種文化根基和主食,」聯合國秘書長潘基文說。「藜麥正待獲得全球的認可。」

秘書長還強調了藜麥在他的「零饑餓挑戰」框架內的作用,這不僅僅是因為它的營養價值,而且還因為目前種植藜麥的大多是小農戶

「這一作物寄託著增加收入的希望,而增加收入是‘零饑餓挑戰’的一項重要內容,」潘基文說。

他指出,許多南美洲國家在實現饑餓人口減半的千年發展目標上取得重大進展,不僅提高產量,而且還減少貧困和增加獲得諸如藜麥這樣有營養食物的機會。

在安第斯的前哥倫布文明時期,藜麥具有重要的營養意義,是僅次於馬鈴薯的作物。傳統上,藜麥籽粒經烘烤後可製成烤麵包的麵粉。它也可以煮著吃,添加到湯中,用作麥片、麵食,甚至發酵後製作成啤酒或安第斯地區的傳統飲料吉開酒。

如今,藜麥進入了美食廚房,而且在製藥和其他工業領域發揮作用。藜麥栽培現在已經擴展到安第斯以外的地區 – 除了玻利維亞、秘魯、厄瓜多爾、智利、哥倫比亞和阿根廷以外 – 它還種植在美國、加拿大、法國、英國、瑞典、丹麥、義大利、肯雅和印度。

莫拉萊斯總統說,「藜麥是安第斯人民祖先傳下的禮物。」他強調指出,作為保管人,土著人在超過7000年的時間裡為保管這一作物發揮了重要作用。

Quinoa can play an important role in eradicating hunger, malnutrition and poverty, FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva said today at the official launch of the International Year of Quinoa at UN Headquarters.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, President Evo Morales of Bolivia and First Lady Nadine Heredia Alarcón de Humala of Peru were among the high-level participants in a day-long series of events celebrating the Andean “super food”, a highly nutritious, cereal-like crop that is rich in protein and micronutrients.

“Today we are here to recruit a new ally in the fight against hunger and food insecurity –quinoa,” said Graziano da Silva, citing the crop’s unique nutritional characteristics and adaptability.

Quinoa is the only plant food that has all the essential amino acids, trace elements and vitamins, and also has the ability to adapt to different ecological environments and climates. Resistant to drought, poor soils and high salinity, it can be grown from sea level to an altitude of four thousand meters and can withstand temperatures between -8 and 38 degrees Celsius.

As the world faces the challenge of increasing the production of quality food to feed a growing population in a changing climate, quinoa offers an alternative food source for those countries suffering from food insecurity.

In Kenya and Mali, the crop is already showing high yields, the Director-General said, and initial FAO studies indicate that quinoa production could also be developed in the Himalayas, the plains of northern India, the Sahel, Yemen and other arid regions of the world.

Gift from the Andes

“This extraordinary grain has been a cultural anchor and a staple in the diet of millions of people throughout the Andes for thousands of years,” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said. “Quinoa is now poised for global recognition.”

The Secretary-General also highlighted the potential role of quinoa within the framework of his Zero Hunger Challenge, not only because of its nutritional value but also because most quinoa is currently produced by smallholder farmers.

“The crop holds the promise of improved incomes – a key plank of the Zero Hunger Challenge,” Ban said.

He noted that many countries in South America are making strong progress toward meeting the Millennium Development Goal of reducing hunger by half, not only by increasing production, but also by reducing poverty and increasing access to nutritious food like quinoa.

Quinoa was of great nutritional importance to pre-Colombian Andean civilizations, second only to the potato. Traditionally, quinoa grains are roasted and then made into flour for bread. It can also be cooked, added to soups, used as a cereal, as pasta and even fermented into beer or chicha, the traditional drink of the Andes.

Today, quinoa has found a place in the gourmet kitchen and a role in the pharmaceutical and other industries. Cultivation of quinoa now extends beyond the Andean region and – besides Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia and Argentina – it is also produced in the United States, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Kenya and India.

“Quinoa is an ancestral gift of the Andean people,” President Morales said, highlighting the important role of indigenous people as custodians of the crop for more than 7000 years.

資料來源 Source:2013國際藜麥年秘書處 International Year of Quinoa Secretariat