非洲:靠自己擺脫糧食問題 Africa can feed itself in a generation

哈佛大學教授 Professor Calestous Juma 早前出了一部名為 The New Harvest 的書。書中說到,所有非洲國家的領導人必須將國家農業擴張作為政治決策的中心,  Professor Calestous Juma 認為增加基礎設施、機械化和轉基因農作物生產的將能大幅增加糧食供應。

坦桑尼亞、肯尼亞、烏干達分重盧旺達以及布隆迪的總統已開會討論如何進一步擴大非洲的農業,以達致糧食自給自足。 Professor Calestous Juma 指出, 雖然有近 70%的非洲人口正從事農業,那他們的營養不良人口 卻從 1990年的100萬倍升至250萬。

A new book called The New Harvest, by Harvard University Professor Calestous Juma said that all African leaders must make agriculture expansion a central topic in decision-making regarding their countries.“Improvements in infrastructure, mechanisation and GM crops could vastly increase production” Professor Juma claimed.

The presidents of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi are already having meetings discussing how to further expand agriculture in Africa so that it can sufficiently feed its people. “While 70% of Africans may be engaged in farming, those who are undernourished on the continent has risen by 100 million to 250 million since 1990″, estimated by Professor Juma.

上圖為非洲國家與全球農業生產效率的比較:
I: 拖拉機 /100 kmsq  農地: 非洲國家 13架  VS 全球 200 架;
II:農田灌溉率: 非洲國家 3.6% VS  全球 18.4%;
III: 每公頃農地用肥量: 非洲國家 9kg VS  全球 100 kg )

Professor Juma 建議透過轉基因農作物和生物技術能提升糧食生產效率。問題是,一些領導人忽略了農村土地發展,只集中在城市地區的發展,繼而未能將城鄉聯繫以及擴大土地和生產。另一個問題是部分國家投放在農業的資源只有約10%。Professor Juma 相信,只要政府願意投放資源, 要解決非洲國家糧食問題將離現在不遠已。

Professor Juma suggests that farming, GM crops and biotechnology should finally be adapted to make food production efficient. The problem is that some of the leaders ignore the expansion of rural lands and only focus on urban areas, thus fails to create a link between rural and urban and expand land and production. Another problem is that only 10% are being invested to agriculture, therefore; it is crucial to invest “where the mouths are.” So, in doing all these it may be able to reach the goal of feeding itself in the near future.

Source: BBC 
Special Credit: Jianne Soriano

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