肥胖和超重 Obesity and overweight

重要事實

  • 自1980年以來,全球肥胖人數已翻了一番。
  • 根據2008年的統計,20歲或以上的成年人口中,有15億人屬於超重。其中超過2億男性及接近3億的女性屬於癡肥。
  • 65%的世界人口居住的國家,因超重和癡肥以死亡的人數比體重不足為高。
  • 根據2010年的數據,接近4300萬名5歲以下的兒童屬於超重。
  • 癡肥是可以預防的。

Key facts

  • Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980.
  • In 2008, 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese.
  • 65% of the world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight.
  • Nearly 43 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010.
  • Obesity is preventable.

引致超重及癡肥的原因?
引致超重及癡肥最基本的原因是卡路里(熱量) 的吸收與消粍的不平衡。全球生活模式偏向於:吸收更多高能量,即脂肪、鹽、糖含量高的食物,相對地,含維他命、礦物及其他微量營養素則缺乏吸收。而涉及運動的活動愈來愈少,因為工作多是坐著的工作,交通運輸愈來愈普及,全球都市化的加速亦是原因之一。

What causes obesity and overweight?
The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Globally, there has been:
an increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat, salt and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients; and
a decrease in physical activity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.

超重及癡肥如何影響健康?
如幼年時期屬於癡肥,成長後也會帶來更多風險,包括更易持續癡肥、短壽及成長後的殘疾。此外,癡肥的兒童會較易呼吸困難、增加骨折的風險、患上高血壓、心血管疾病、胰島素抗阻(第二型糖尿病的常見病徵且在出現糖尿病前就會發生)及得到其他心理上的影響。

What are common health consequences of overweight and obesity?
Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.

很多低及中收入的國家現正面對雙重負擔
一方面他們要繼續去應付一些如傳染性疾病及營養不良的問題;另一方面,他們要面對一些新的及正在迅速增長非傳染性的疾病,如癡肥及超重。特別是那些以轉變成城市模式的地區。

如今在同一個國家、社區甚至家庭,同時間出現營養不良及癡肥的問題,已成為普遍的事。在低及中收入國家的兒童,他們於懷孕期、嬰兒期及幼兒期已未能獲得充足營養。但由於高脂、高糖、高鹽、高熱量、微量營養素低的食物售價低廉,持續吸收此等廉價食物及缺乏運動,造成兒童癡肥並同時營養不良。

Facing a double burden of disease
Many low and middle-income countries are now facing a “double burden” of disease. While they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are experiencing a rapid upsurge in incommunicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings.

It is not uncommon to find under-nutrition and obesity existing side-by-side within the same country, the same community and the same household. Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition. At the same time, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which tend to be lower in cost. These dietary patterns in conjunction with low levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity while under-nutrition issues remain unsolved.

Image: Earth Fare
Source: World Health Organization


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